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Katyn: che tutti i russi sappiano (online)

RUSSIA: PUBBLICATI DOCUMENTI SEGRETI SU MASSACRO POLACCHI A KATYN
di Francesco Maria Cannatà, Corrispondente a Mosca dell’ AGI – Agenzia Giornalistica Italia
Mosca, 28 apr. 2010 – A pochi giorni dal 65.mo anniversario del 9 maggio 1945, data della vittoria nella “grande guerra patriottica”, il Cremlino ha messo on-line il “dossier N°1”. I documenti sulla strage di circa ventiduemila ufficiali, soldati e civili polacchi commessa nel 1940 a Katyn dai servizi segreti sovietici, sono ora di dominio pubblico. Si tratta di un piccolo, nuovo, XX.mo congresso, questa volta fatto dalla Russia e per la Russia. Un gesto voluto da Dimitry Medvedev che non solo rendera’ piu’ giusta e umana la grande parata militare con cui la Federazione celebra la disfatta del nazifascismo, ma che potra’ anche aprire le porte alla discussione su verita’ e male nella storia del grande paese slavo e ortodosso. Nella mentalita’ russa la propaganda iniziata dallo zarismo, esasperata dall’Urss e mai negata negli anni della presidenza Putin ha finora battuto su un solo tasto: il paese ha sempre fatto il bene degli altri. Aver liberato l’Europa dal fascismo ricevendone in cambio solo ingratitudine, questo il rebus del cittadino federale. La riflessione sul passato, cui uno spazio sempre piu’ grande occupa la verita’ su Katyn, sta mettendo in discussione questi dogmi e questo modello di memoria. Un dibattito sempre piu’ alla luce del sole sta costringendo ad assumersi le proprie responsabilita’. Come quasi tutti i popoli anche i russi non hanno fatto solo del bene. Lo ha sottolineato il responsabile degli Archivi di Stato, Andrej Artizov, commentando la messa on-line del Dossier N.1: la consultazione pubblica dei documenti rendera’ innegabili verita’ che lentamente si sono fatte strada tra i suoi concittadini. Nessuno ora potra’ piu’ negare che oltre alla firma di Lavrenti Berja lo stermino dell’elite politico-militare di Varsavia e di centinaia di cittadini sovietici e russi aveva anche il consenso di Stalin e degli altri membri dell’Ufficio politico del Pcus. I rapporti con Varsavia faranno certo un nuovo passo avanti.
Ma non e’ la Polonia il primo committente della pubblicazione. Come ribadisce Artizov, nel 1990 Boris Eltsin aveva gia’ consegnato le copie del dossier al presidente polacco Lech Walesa. In realta’ con il gesto di oggi il capo dello Stato russo approfondisce un percorso iniziato lo scorso anno. Nel febbraio 2009 Dimitry Medvedev si era rivolto ai suoi concittadini sottolineando il “valore della verita’” nella vita delle collettivita’. Non mancano dunque i bersagli interni: su tutti il sindaco di Mosca Yuri Luzhkov e il suo tentativo di utilizzare il 65.mo anniversario della Vittoria per mettere in secondo piano le accuse di corruzione edilizia cui insieme alla moglie e’ sempre piu’ soggetto. Infine anche il dibattito elettorale polacco risentira’ del gesto di apertura di Mosca. Se la memoria russa e’ stata definita un “caos” che ha finora escluso una riflessione culturale comune soprattutto sul terrore staliniano, quella della Polonia poggia su presupposti contrari: essere stati sempre e comunque vittime, soprattutto di russi e tedeschi, e aver agito sempre da eroi. Un atteggiamento che la reazione russa alla tragedia in cui ha perso la vita Lech Kaczynski ha contribuito a mettere in discussione. Le prossime mosse su Katyn potrebbero andare nella direzione chiesta dall’organizzazione russa per la difesa dei diritti umani Memorial: definire con chiarezza i lineamenti giuridici di quanto avvenuto nel 1940. Chiamare criminali i criminali e vittime le vittime per riabilitare queste ultime. Se cosi fosse, sarebbe Varsavia a dover prendere nuove posizioni riconoscendo finalmente che la Federazione russa non e’ l’Urss. Il 7 aprile Putin ha fatto il primo passo con un discorso onesto, emozionato e incompleto. L’aver portato alla luce del sole parte dei documenti sull’eccidio del 1940 rappresenta ora la svolta che puo’ cambiare in profondita’ l’autocoscienza pubblica di Russia e Polonia e la percezione che i due paesi hanno di se stessi e dei rapporti con gli altri. (AGI)
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Moscou ordonne la publication sur le Web de documents inédits sur le massacre de Katyn
LEMONDE.FR avec AFP et Reuters | 28.04.10
Les archives d’Etat russes ont mis en ligne mercredi 28 avril, sur ordre du président Dmitri Medvedev, une série de documents sur le massacre dans la forêt de Katyn de quelque 22 000 officiers polonais, en 1940, par la police politique de Staline, le NKVD, publiés pour la première fois en Russie. “Sur décision du président de la Fédération de Russie, Dmitri Medvedev, les copies électroniques de documents originaux du dossier n° 1 sur le ‘problème de Katyn’ ont été publiés”, est-il écrit sur le site de l’Agence fédérale des archies, Rusarchives.ru.
Une note de Lavrenti Beria, le chef du NKVD, où il propose l’exécution des officiers polonais arrêtés, figure parmi les documents mis en ligne. “Ces documents ont été déclassifiés en septembre 1992 et, sur ordre du président russe Boris Eltsine, les copies ont été transmises à la partie polonaise”, indiquent les archives russes.
Le mouvement de défense des droits de l’homme russe Memorial avait dit, le 21 avril, avoir levé un premier obstacle dans son combat pour l’ouverture des archives sur ce massacre. La Cour suprême russe avait en effet ordonné à un tribunal de Moscou d’examiner un appel de Memorial, qui cherchait à contraindre les autorités à revenir sur une décision prise en 2004 par le parquet militaire de classer l’enquête sur le massacre. Ian Ratchinski, dirigeant de Memorial, avait déclaré que ce jugement pourrait déboucher sur une décision d’ouvrir les archives secrètes sur Katyn, ce que souhaite également la Pologne. Leggi tutto
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Państwowe Archiwa Rosji umieściły na swej stronie internetowej dokumenty o zbrodni katyńskiej świadczące o tym, że dokonało jej NKWD na rozkaz Józefa Stalina. Ich opublikowanie nakazał prezydent Dmitrij Miedwiediew. Więcej…
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Prezydent Miedwiediew zapowiada, że Polska dostanie nieznane jeszcze dokumenty o Katyniu,
GW, 2010-04-28
Oryginalne dokumenty związane z Katyniem po raz pierwszy udostępniono na stronie internetowej Federalnej Służby Archiwalnej Rosji (Rosarchiw) – poinformowała agencja ITAR-TASS. Na razie są to dokumenty już wcześniej znane i publikowane w Polsce i w Rosji… Nic nowego, choć to kolejny ładny gest.
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Postimees – Estonia – Opening Russian archives will shed light on Katyn
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has ordered the release of archive material on the Katyn massacre, which took place 70 years ago. The daily Postimess now expects greater insight into the historical events that led to the massacre: “Keeping archives closed to historians and other researchers allows propaganda to become active. As is well-known, the Soviet Union blamed the Nazis for the murder of the Polish officers. In the same way partial release of archive material can also work as a propaganda tool by intentionally putting the focus on one side of the conflict. Persistent lies serve political agendas. Just imagine for example how different our knowledge of the Second World War would be if the German archives were closed. The best way to throw light on the historical circumstances is to establish an international committee of enquiry and lay your cards on the table for all to see.” (29/04/2010) – segnalato da Euro-topics
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Russia declassifies documents related to Katyń massacre
Published on EurActiv, 30 April 2010
For the first time, Russia has published documents related to the 1939 massacre of thousands of Polish officers in Katyń, in a gesture of solidarity with Warsaw after the recent death of its president, Lech Kaczyński. Russia’s Federal Archive Service, Rosarkhiv, published on 28 April on its website scanned photos of seven documents acknowledging Soviet responsibility for the massacre of 22,000 Polish officers. One document, dated 5 March 1940, was a note from NKVD chief Lavrenty Beria. The note was signed by then-Soviet dictator Josef Stalin and three other members of the Soviet Politburo. The note ordered the execution “by firing” of Polish “nationalists and counter-revolutionaries”. For decades, Moscow blamed the Nazis for the massacre and didn’t acknowledge Soviet responsibility until 1992, under the presidencies of Lech Wałęsa in Poland and Boris Yeltsin in Russia. None of the culprits have ever been identified and investigations have been shelved. A Russian court in July 2008 refused to consider a request for a criminal investigation into the Katyń massacre. The families of some of the victims were trying to use the Russian courts to force prosecutors to launch a new investigation into a massacre seen in Poland as a symbol of the repression the country suffered under Soviet domination. According to the head of Rosarkhiv, Andriej Artizow, the publication of the documents has been ordered by President Dmitri Medvedev. The seven documents in question were declassified at the start of 1990s and shared with Poland, but their originals had been made available only to historians so far. However, the Russian Communist Party still disputes the authenticity of records and maintains that the Polish officers were executed by the Nazis. Many Russians still believe that Western propaganda is placing the blame on their country for the 1939 massacre in Katyń. The monstrosity of the Katyń massacre should be examined against the background of Stalin’s purges of 1936-1938, involving large-scale physical extermination of the elite of the Communist party, the government, the army and other sectors of society. According to the Russian Memorial Society, at least 1.7 million people were arrested and at least 724,000 were executed. Many executions were carried out in the same way as Katyń.
Background
Germany invaded Poland in 1939 while Soviet forces occupied the eastern half of the country. As a consequence, tens of thousands of Polish military personnel fell into Soviet hands and were put in prison camps inside the Soviet Union. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Polish government-in-exile (located in London) and the Soviet government agreed to cooperate against Germany, and a Polish army on Soviet territory was to be formed. When Poland requested the return of 15,000 prisoners of war from the Soviets, the Soviet government informed Poland in December 1941 that most of those prisoners had escaped to Manchuria and could not be located. In April 1943, Germany announced they had discovered the mass graves of Polish officers in the Katyń forest near Smolensk: a total of 4,443 corpses were recovered. The Soviet government then claimed that the Poles had been engaged in construction work west of Smolensk in 1941 and the invading German army had killed them after overrunning that area in August 1941. President Kaczyński, his wife and 94 officials were killed April 10 in a plane crash in western Russia en route to a ceremony commemorating the Katyń massacre (EurActiv 10/04/10). As analysts pointed out, the sincere sympathy of the Russian people and leadership towards Poland over the tragic accident marked an improvement in bilateral relations (EurActiv 14/04/10).
(EurActiv with Reuters and additional reports from the Polish press.)
Positions
Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk said he welcomed the disclosure. He said Kaczyński’s death could be a catalyst for renewed cooperation between Warsaw and Moscow, and Tusk urged Russia not to let the opportunity slip.
Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev described the gesture as a “duty”. “Let people see it. Let them know who made the decision to kill the Polish officers,” Medvedev said during a trip to Copenhagen, Denmark. “It’s all there in the documents. All signatures are there, all the faces are known,” he added.
According to Polish historian Wojciech Materski, the online publication of the documents is an important gesture for Poles and Russians. He recalls that historians from both countries have had access to these documents for many years, but the form of the latest publication is important.
“The decision to publish documents already known by historians for years won’t deepen our knowledge as there is nothing new,” said Sławomir Dębski from the Polish Institute of International Affairs in an interview with radio TOK FM. “But the publication on the Internet is the proof that Russia wants to cut off speculation, myths, which operate at the margins of public debate,” he added. “Russia wanted to give the lie to those who argue that the documents were falsified, manipulated,” Dębski said.
Centre-right Polish MEP Paweł Zalewski (European People’s Party, Civic Platform) said the access to documents on the Katyń massacre “does not create a new situation in the Polish-Russian relations,” because their content is widely known. However, “the decision of the Russian archives is important for Russia’s domestic policy,” he stressed.
Polish national MP Tadeusz Iwiński (left) said “the decision of the Russian archives is a good step in a late but inevitable process, which is Polish-Russian reconciliation”.
“I can be pleased with this decision as the Russian side announced it will make more and more real gestures and actions of this type,” said national MP Janusz Piechociński from the conservative Polish peasants party (PSL).
MP Karol Karski from the conservative Law and Justice party (PiS) of Kaczyński asked for the opening of all Soviet achieves related to the Katyń massacre. “It would be seen as an action for a new start,” he said.
Links
Gazeta.pl: Katyń: Rosja udostępniła w internecie oryginalne akta
Rosarkhiv, Russia’s Federal Archive Service
Gazeta.pl: “Ściśle tajne” dokumenty o Katyniu po raz pierwszy w internecine
TOK FM: “Publikacja dokumentów ws. Katynia to pozory. One były powszechnie znane”
Gazeta Prawna: http://www.gazetaprawna.pl/wiadomosci/artykuly/417186,prezydent_rosji_oswiadcza_ze_przekaze_polsce_nowe_dokumenty_ws_katynia.html
Rzeczpospolita: Akta katyńskie w Internecie
RMF 24: Rosja ujawnia akta dotyczące Katynia

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